WAPS – Wind Assisted Propulsion Systems

Advisory services on WAPS in a nutshell

Our advisory experts can support you in all stages of your WAPS journey; from assisting the manufacturer of a WAPS unit, supporting shipowners, operators or yards considering or planning an installation of a WAPS and, finally, to performing measurements, validation or troubleshooting of the system during operation.


Services before installation of WAPS

To support you in considering a WAPS investment, our experts can assess the potential of WAPS on a vessel. The level and detail of the assessment is decided together with you and ranges from a high-level study to a detailed case-by-case analysis. 

Depending on the available data, detailed studies may include performance predictions considering specific aerodynamic and hydrodynamic characteristics, as well as route optimization using historical weather data. Computational fluid dynamic simulations can be conducted to further assess such effects, for instance the interaction between the hull and WAPS.

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Our experts provide design consultancy to integrate WAPS into the ship design. We conduct high-level conceptual design assessments to show the impact of WAPS on machinery, the propeller, and hull design. Furthermore, we support you in developing and reviewing the vessel specification with WAPS during the tender process. 

Advanced parametric hull optimization studies can be conducted to generate the most suitable hull for the vessel with WAP. The machinery system can also be optimized for the application with a WAPS.

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A WAPS onboard a specific vessel is exposed to different loads such as wind loads, and wave induced loads from ship motions. Although many providers of WAPS today offer a certified product for a “worst case” vessel, the operational area of a specific vessel highly influences the lifetime of the sail system on board that vessel. Hence, the specific vessel in question may serve as a better basis to optimize the installation on board. 

Our experts can assist with hydrodynamic analyses to evaluate the relevant loads and accelerations according to standardized or trade-specific wave and wind environments as input to the ship-specific structural analysis.

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The WAPS unit is a tall and slender structure exposed to large loads attacking the sail far above the support foundation at the deck level. In the worst case, the high loads could lead to overloading or fatigue cracking from the many load cycles – potentially causing collapse or permanent deformations of the WAPS unit or its supporting structure. Even the hull structure strength may need to be re-evaluated because of the specific installation. 

Structural analysis with simplified or sophisticated approaches may be used to optimize and document strength for the WAPS unit, its supporting structure and hull structure. While the assessment of the WAPS unit needs to be performed at least once, the strength of the foundation is required for each installation on board. Documentation of the structural analysis is required as input to the class approval.

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A sail system hazard identification (HAZID) helps you identify hazards to novel sail systems installed on board a ship and assesses the associated risks. It includes risk ranking and mitigating actions for successful risk management of the sail system. This can be used to start a risk management process for sail system design, construction and installation as well as to comply with, for instance, AIP and TADC risk management requirements. 

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As a trusted advisor along the decarbonization pathway, our experts can assess the impact of WAPS on all relevant requirements from stakeholders. This includes regulations such as CII, EEXI/EEDI, and EU ETS, as well as initiatives from financial institutions (Poseidon principles) and cargo-owners/charterers (Sea Cargo Charter). Furthermore, WAPS can support to meet the decarbonization pathway and to be eligible for sustainable finance, meaning ESG-compliant investment and lending. 

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Services after installation of a WAPS

After installation of the WAPS, our experts can assist you in different aspects of validating the system:

  • Setting up data measurements on board
  • Analysing in-service measurements from the vessel and sail system
  • Sea trials performed by DNV

Furthermore, if the system is not validated to deliver the expected results, our experts provide advice on how to best operate the system for enhanced results.

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Our experts can help you with troubleshooting in case of issues such as unforeseen noise and vibrations on the vessel invoked by the sail system. Our experts perform measurements and advise on mitigating measures. Such measurements are also required for each installation as part of the sea trial.

With time, there may be more changes to the vessel beyond wear and tear, like design or operational changes that may affect the risk of noise and vibration. A permanent measurement system may be an option not only to monitor the noise and vibration levels but also to cover performance data. This could be part of the control system or separate as a part of a hull monitoring system according to the hull monitoring rules related to the HMON class notation.

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Related links:


Decarbonize shipping

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CII – Carbon Intensity Indicator

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Poseidon Principles – green finance in maritime

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ESG Maritime Advisory service

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EEXI | Energy Efficiency Existing Ship Index

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